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Non-Compliance with Building Energy Regulations: The Profile, Issues, and Implications on Practice and Policy in England and Wales

Original scientific paper

Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems
Volume 1, Issue 4, December 2013, pp 340-351
DOI: https://doi.org/10.13044/j.sdewes.2013.01.0026
Helen Garmston1, Wei Pan2
1 School of Architecture, Design and Environment, Plymouth University
2 Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong


The built environment consumes as much as 50% of many countries’ primary energy resources. Building energy regulations aim to reduce building energy consumption. However, non-compliance risks efficacy of such regulations and monetary costs to the construction industry and consumers. This paper examines the profile, issues and implications of non-compliance internationally with a focus on the case of new-build dwellings in England and Wales. Non-compliance has been observed internationally in both developed and developing countries. The issues underlying the non-compliance include perceptions of triviality towards the energy efficiency regulations, piecemeal dissemination, and a lack of familiarisation and training. Such lack of compliance may paradoxically risk ever more stringent regulations being accompanied by persistent non-compliance. To address the underlying issues, significant attention of both policy and practice must be paid to the formation, implementation and enforcement of building energy regulations, as well as to the training and education in building practices.

Keywords: Building regulation, Part L1A, Dwellings, Energy efficiency, Energy policy, Non-compliance

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