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Improving the buildings' sustainability through combined matrix assessment of embodied energy, water, and carbon: case of conventional houses, Jammu-India

Original scientific paper

Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems
Volume 12, Issue 2, 1120488
DOI: https://doi.org/10.13044/j.sdewes.d12.0488
Anoop Kumar Sharma1 , Prabhjot Singh Chani2
2 Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee, India


The study attempts the comparatives of embodied energy, water, and carbon parameters in the cradle-to-gate phase of building construction for conventional houses in Jammu, India. Besides relying on hybrid material coefficients and field investigations-based materials database, the study adopts a general life cycle assessment framework. Descriptive statistics and regression techniques aid in meeting the findings. A strong interrelation between embodied energy and carbon, but a considerably weak embodied water-to-energy or embodied water-to-carbon relationship emerges. The top embodied energy and carbon-impacting materials (like brick) retard significantly in embodied water impacts, while steel deserves less attention than sand, aggregates, and cement considering all three parameters together. Therefore, a new dimension to appropriately using building materials and construction technologies looms by outlining a broad materials palette. The results call for a differing embodied water optimisation approach to embodied energy or carbon-pertaining ones. The construction players receive a new insight towards a sustainable building approach. 

Keywords: Embodied energy; Embodied water; Embodied carbon; Sustainable buildings; Energy-water-carbon nexus

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