Poultry Manure Derived Biochars – The Impact of Pyrolysis Temperature on Selected Properties and Potentials for Further Modifications
The overall goal of this work was to investigate the potential of poultry manure for thermal conversion into biochar and the impact of temperature on selected biochar properties. Biochar is a solid carbonized material that demonstrates a number of interesting properties such as high microporosity and surface area, presence of surface functional groups and micro and macroelements. Therefore, it can be applied as a sorbent to remove organic and inorganic substances from liquid and gaseous phases, as an amendment in composting and anaerobic fermentation, a component of fertilizers and soil improver or as a filler in production of biocomposites. The scope of this work included: collection and analysis of poultry manure samples from an organic poultry farm (a), laboratory pyrolysis of poultry manure in selected temperatures (400-700 °C) (b), the analysis of biochar properties (chemical composition, surface area, functional groups, etc.) produced at different temperatures (c) and discussion of potential applications for the produced poultry derived biochars (d). The efficiency of conversion of poultry manure to biochar was about 62% for 400 °C and about 55% for 700 °C. The obtained results demonstrated that biochars produced from poultry manure showed a complex chemical composition. The following elements were present: carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, iron. Surface area of the obtained biochars was very low (about
5 m2g−1). Gradual aromatization of the investigated biochar and the formation of wide range of oxygen functionalities were observed. In view to the obtained results poultry manure derived biochars due to chemical composition could be potentially applied as a component of fertilizers, soil improvers and composts. However, other applications such as removal of various contaminants, e.g., from wastewater or exhaust air would require additional modification through thermal and/or chemical treatment.