Development of a multi criteria model for assisting EV user charging decisions
Electric Vehicles offer one of the most efficient solutions towards the direction of providing sustainable transportation systems. However, a broader market uptake of Electric Vehicle--based mobility is still missing. The lack of sufficient infrastructure (Electric Vehicle charging stations) in combination with the lack of information about their availability appears as a major limitation, leading to low user acceptance. Additional, technology based, assistance services provided to Electric Vehicle users is a key solution to unlock the full potential of their utilization. This paper presents a multi-factor dynamic optimization model using multi-criteria analysis to select the best alternatives for Electric Vehicle charging within a smart grid with the goal of supporting a larger uptake of Electric Vehicle -based mobility. The application provides assistance to the Electric Vehicle drivers through functionalities of energy price, cost and travel time of the electric vehicle to the charging station, the specifications of vehicles and stations, the status of the charging stations as well as the user's preferences. The proposed model is developed by incorporating PROMETHEE II and Analytic Hierarchy Process methodologies to provide the best charging solutions after considering all possible options for each Electric Vehicle user. The multi-criteria analysis algorithm is not only limited to comparing alternative charging options at a specific time but also looks at several starting times of charging. A simulated case study is implemented to examine the functionality of the proposed model. From the results, it is evident that by applying the findings of this work entrepreneurial community and industry can develop new services that will improve user satisfaction, electromobility, urban mobility, and sustainability of cities. At the same time, academia, leveraging the methodology and factors that influence the choice of charging station, can conduct further research on digital innovations that will contribute to the consolidation of e-mobility ensuring the sustainability of cities, while accelerating digital transformation in the transport sector.