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An Implementation Framework Overview of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring

Review paper

Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems
Volume 11, Issue 4, 1110471
DOI: https://doi.org/10.13044/j.sdewes.d11.0471
Omar Al-Khadher1 , Azharudin Mukhtaruddin1, Fakroul Ridzuan Hashim1, Muhammad Mokhzaini Azizan2, Hussin Mamat3
1 Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2 Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
3 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia


The implementation of non-intrusive load monitoring has gained significant attention as a promising solution for disaggregating and identifying individual appliances' energy consumption within households and commercial buildings. The issue at the core of non-intrusive load monitoring is the accurate separation of the aggregated energy consumption signal into the energy contributions of distinct appliances without requiring additional sensors or invasive measurements. The erroneous implementation of non-intrusive load monitoring model leads to poor results and a waste of time where the criteria for the implementation are necessary. This paper presents an overview of non-intrusive load monitoring's implementation, addressing the stages of non-intrusive load monitoring and advancements in the field. The overview explores the various techniques, methodologies, and algorithms employed in non-intrusive load monitoring systems to achieve load identification and energy disaggregation. By addressing the problem statement and reviewing the state of the art, this paper sets the stage for understanding the significance of non-intrusive load monitoring in commercial buildings and modern energy-efficient households. Moreover, the limitations, applications, and recommended criteria for the implementation of non-intrusive load monitoring are highlighted as a contribution to the field of load disaggregation. Future research should address scalability, privacy concerns, and the integration of NILM with smart grids to propel energy disaggregation towards more efficient, accessible, and sustainable energy management systems. We envision that this endeavour can serve as a guiding beacon, offering a roadmap for researchers and professionals.

Keywords: Energy efficiency; non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM); data collection; features extraction; load classification

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