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Optimization of Photovoltaic Self-consumption using Domestic Hot Water Systems

Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems
ARTICLE IN PRESS (volume, issue and page numbers will be assigned later)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13044/j.sdewes.d5.0178
Ângelo Casaleiro1 , Raquel Figueiredo1, Diana Neves2, Miguel C. Brito1, Carlos A. Silva3
1 Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
2 Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
3 Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal

Electrified domestic hot water systems, being deferrable loads, are an important demand side management tool and thus have the potential to enhance photovoltaic self-consumption. This study addresses the energy and economic performance of photovoltaic self-consumption by using a typical Portuguese dwelling. Five system configurations were simulated: a gas boiler (with/without battery) and an electric boiler (without demand management and with genetic and heuristic optimization). A sensitivity analysis on photovoltaic capacity shows the optimum photovoltaic sizing to be in the range 1.0 to 2.5 kWp. The gas boiler scenario and the heuristic scenario present the best levelized cost of energy, respectively, for the lower and higher photovoltaic capacities. The use of a battery shows the highest levelized cost of energy and the heuristic scenario shows the highest solar fraction (56.9%). Results also highlight the great potential on increasing photovoltaic size when coupled with electrified domestic hot water systems, to accommodate higher solar fractions and achieve lower costs, through energy management.

Keywords: Photovoltaic self-consumption, Domestic hot water, Demand side management, Levelized cost of energy analysis, Residential demand, Solar fraction, Renewable energy

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