The Influence of Production Chemicals on the Quality of Oilfield Produced Water
The cost of treatment of produced water prior to disposal forms a significant percentage of the total economic impact of pollutants in crude oil production. The treatment of produced water involves the removal of toxic compounds contained in the fluid to a level where it is considered safe before the water can be disposed, discharged or reused in the environment. Production chemicals have been identified as one of the sources through which these toxic compounds enter the produced water and therefore the need to evaluate the influence of these chemicals at their various injection rates on the quality of the produced water from the production process. This research study is a part of an on-going project on the application of environmental process engineering for pollutant reduction and energy savings in crude oil production. The study has found that the introduction of scale inhibitor, paraffin inhibitor, demulsifier, biocides and corrosion inhibitor at the rates of 10 ppm, 200 ppm, 15 ppm, 500 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively, yields a corresponding increase in the concentrations of ammonia, hydrocarbons, salinity, phosphates and nitrates in the produced water by 242%, 53%, 12.5%, 300% and −4.8%, respectively. The knowledge provided by this project will educate the oil and gas sector across the globe, aid engineers and operators understanding of produced water pollution mechanism during oil and gas production processes. The results of this research will also be useful in the design of crude oil production and produced water treatment processes in avoiding negative environmental impacts from the final effluent composition of produced water.