Energy-cement-carbon emission nexus and its implications for future urbanization in China
With rapid urbanization and the requirements for new buildings and infrastructure, cement production is expected to increase in China. Meanwhile, China’s energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with cement industry are expected to increase, as cement production is one of the most energy intensive industries. Introducing new and more pertinent technologies with better management, as indicated by government goals and measures, can improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission. However, many challenges and uncertainties in the cement industry have been addressed without considering several interconnected processes among sectors including industry, energy, construction, and services, which lead to little improvements in the industry. Nexus approaches are recognized as effective methods to simultaneously examine interactions among multiple sectors with various elements. This research intends to provide insights for future energy-cement-carbon emission nexus, through integrated assessment capabilities, related to China’s new urbanization planning toward 2050. Several challenges and uncertainties, including different trends in population growth, structural transformation of economic driving forces, and new but stricter policy targets for resource use efficiency and environment production, are put into multiple scenarios. The results of our analysis provide perspectives on future direction to underscore the growing interconnection among energy, cement and carbon emission with clear and more specific roadmap for promoting integrated planning, management and governance.