Integrated Design of a Small Wastewater Treatment Plant - A Case Study from Thailand
This study describes the development of an integrated design framework comprising technical, environmental, social, and economic modules to manage the design of communal wastewater treatment plant. It demonstrates a simple yet effective design management framework developed to tackle the challenges of incorporating Local Agenda 21 and the elements of triple bottom line reporting. The examined alternatives included stabilization pond, aerated lagoon, and biological contact oxidation treatment technologies with 1500 m3/day plant capacity. The integrated process facilitated comprehensive design and ensured the systemic and informed involvement of all relevant stakeholders. Environmental and technical criterion focused on reducing current impact on the aquatic environment in terms of nitrogen, ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids pollutants. Stabilization pond treatment was identified as the most appropriate solution to offer adequate treatment performance, simple and robust operability, and affordable user costs.