Model Analysis of the Impact of Increased Time at Home on Household Energy Consumption: A Japanese Case Study during the COVID-19 Lockdown
The emergence of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease of 2019) pandemic in 2020 and the ensuing state of emergency issued by the Japanese government, which enforced from April 6 to May 25, 2020, changed our collective lifestyle dramatically. An increase in time spent at home resulted in a change in the structure of energy consumption. This study aimed to estimate the change in energy consumption at home during and after the state of emergency in Kobe, Japan. Six types of household energy consumption models were created based on the age of the head of household, the number of household members, and the usage time, and energy consumption of consumer durables were estimated for each model type. The results of the model analysis revealed that energy consumption during and after the state of emergency increased by 4.2% and 3.7%, respectively, compared to consumption before the state of emergency.