Design and Evaluation of a Micro-Grid Energy Management Scheme Focusing on the Integration of Electric Vehicles
Market penetration of electric vehicles is nowadays gaining considerable momentum and so is the move towards increasingly distributed clean and renewable electricity sources. The penetration rate varies among countries due to several factors, including the social and technical readiness of the community to adopt and use this technology. In addition, the increasing complexity of power grids, growing demand as well as environmental and energy sustainability concerns intensify the need for energy management solutions and energy demand reduction strategies. Hence, integration strategies for energy-efficiency in the building and transport sector are of increasing importance. The present study analyses key parameters leading to Electric Vehicle adoption, utilizing background data from countries where Electric Vehicles have already been introduced and adopted in everyday living, and presents a case study of an energy management scheme in Greece, where the penetration rate is still low. Based on the above, an optimization algorithm is proposed, where buildings, photovoltaic plants, storage systems, and Electric Vehicles (utilization of Vehicle to Grid technology) can efficiently meet the energy requirements and peak-hour energy demand, in both economic and sustainability terms. The study proposes a hybrid approach, based on Analytic Hierarchy Process methodology and Genetic algorithms, aiming to foster the diffusion of the Vehicle to Grid concept to support building energy demand.