All-Lead-Flow-Batteries as Promising Candidates for Energy Storage Solutions
Soluble-lead-flow-batteries suffer from dendrite formation and thus shorting of the electrodes. Utilizing hexadecyltrimethylammonium-ion as an additive to the electrolyte, as well as periodic electrochemical renewal of electrode surfaces, the problem of dendrite formation has been eliminated. Laboratory scale cells have been designed and constructed that were able to cycle for more than 7,000 full cycles at 100% depth of discharge without intervention to the system. These cells have very high coulombic efficiencies of more than 97%, as well as energy efficiencies of 70% and greater for each individual cycle. The strategy of in situ renewal of electrode surfaces at certain cycle intervals allows these cells to be reconditioned and start with new electrode surfaces each time such a maintenance is performed. Thus, these cells can be reset to their starting condition with each of these maintenance cycles.